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References

1. Bushby K, Finkel R, Birnkrant DJ, et al., Diagnosis and management of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, part 1: diagnosis, and pharmacological and psychosocial management, Lancet Neurol, 2010;9:77-93.

2. LoMauro A, D’Angelo MG, Aliverti A, Assessment and management of respiratory function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: current and emerging options, Ther Clin Risk Manag, 2015;11:1475-88.

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4. Rall S, Grimm T, Survival in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Acta Myol, 2012;31:117-20.

5. Van Ruiten HJ, Marini Bettolo C, Cheetham T, et al., Why are some patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy dying young: An analysis of causes of death in North East England, Eur J Paediatr Neurol, 2016;20:904-9.

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8. Dohna-Schwake C, Ragette R, Teschler H, et al., Predictors of severe chest infections in pediatric neuromuscular disorders, Neuromuscul Disord, 2006;16:325-8.

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10. Finder JD, Birnkrant D, Carl J, et al., Respiratory care of the patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: ATS consensus statement, Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 2004;170:456-65.

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14. West JB, Luk AM. West’s Respiratory Physiology: The Essentials (Chapter 7). 10th ed. Philadelphia, USA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2015.

15. Mayer OH, Finkel RS, Rummey C, et al., Characterization of pulmonary function in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Pediatr Pulmonol, 2015;50:487-94.

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19. Bach JR, Rajaraman R, Ballanger F, et al., Neuromuscular ventilatory insufficiency: effect of home mechanical ventilator use v oxygen therapy on pneumonia and hospitalization rates, Am J Phys Med Rehabil, 1998;77:8-19.

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28. http://www.healthline.com/health/acute-upper-respiratory-infection?print=true (Accessed Jan 2018)

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30. https://www.healthline.com/health/pneumonia (Accessed Jan 2018)

31. Birnkrant DJ, Panitch HB, Benditt JO, et al., American College of Chest Physicians consensus statement on the respiratory and related management of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy undergoing anesthesia or sedation, Chest, 2007;132:1977-86.

32. McKim DA, Katz SL, Barrowman N, et al., Lung volume recruitment slows pulmonary function decline in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 2012;93:1117-22.

33. Toussaint M, Pernet K, Steens M, et al., Cough Augmentation in Subjects With Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Comparison of Air Stacking via a Resuscitator Bag Versus Mechanical Ventilation, Respir Care, 2016;61:61-7.

34. Wollinsky KH, Kutter B, Geiger PM, Long-term ventilation of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: experiences at the Neuromuscular Centre Ulm, Acta Myol, 2012;31:170-8.

35. Boussaid G, Lofaso F, Santos DB, et al., Impact of invasive ventilation on survival when non-invasive ventilation is ineffective in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: A prospective cohort, Respir Med, 2016;115:26-32.

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